|GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.59 Temple
Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USAEveryone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copiesof this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLEThe purpose of this License is to make a manual,
textbook, or otherfunctional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,with or without modifying it, either commercially or
noncommercially.Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a wayto get credit for their work, while not being considered responsiblefor modifications made by others.This License is a kind of
"copyleft", which means that derivativeworks of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. Itcomplements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleftlicense designed for free software.We have
designed this License in order to use it for manuals for freesoftware, because free software needs free documentation: a freeprogram should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that thesoftware does. But this License is
not limited to software manuals;it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter orwhether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this Licenseprincipally for works whose purpose is instruction or
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONSThis License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, thatcontains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can bedistributed under the terms of this License.
Such a notice grants aworld-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use thatwork under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is
alicensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if youcopy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permissionunder copyright law.A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work
containing theDocument or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or withmodifications and/or translated into another language.A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section ofthe Document that
deals exclusively with the relationship of thepublishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directlywithin that overall subject. (Thus, if the
Document is in part atextbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain anymathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historicalconnection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,commercial,
philosophical, ethical or political position regardingthem.The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titlesare designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the noticethat says that the
Document is released under this License. If asection does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is notallowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zeroInvariant Sections. If the Document does not
identify any InvariantSections then there are none.The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says thatthe Document is released
under this License. A Front-Cover Text maybe at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,represented in a format whose specification
is available to thegeneral public, that is suitable for revising the documentstraightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed ofpixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely availabledrawing
editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters orfor automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for inputto text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent fileformat whose markup, or absence of
markup, has been arranged to thwartor discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amountof text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is
called "Opaque".Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGMLor XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming
simpleHTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples oftransparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formatsinclude proprietary formats that can be read and edited only byproprietary word
processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/orprocessing tools are not generally available, and themachine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some wordprocessors for output purposes only.The "Title Page"
means, for a printed book, the title page itself,plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the materialthis License requires to appear in the title page. For works informats which do not have any title page as
such, "Title Page" meansthe text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,preceding the beginning of the body of the text.A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
whosetitle either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses followingtext that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for aspecific section name mentioned below, such as
"Acknowledgements","Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains asection
"Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice whichstates that this License applies to the Document. These WarrantyDisclaimers are considered to be
included by reference in thisLicense, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any otherimplication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and hasno effect on the meaning of this License.
COPYINGYou may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, eithercommercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, thecopyright notices, and the license notice saying this License appliesto the Document are
reproduced in all copies, and that you add no otherconditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not usetechnical measures to obstruct or control the reading or furthercopying of the copies you make or distribute.
However, you may acceptcompensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enoughnumber of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
andyou may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITYIf you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly haveprinted covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and theDocument's license notice
requires Cover Texts, you must enclose thecopies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these CoverTexts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts onthe back cover. Both covers must also clearly and
legibly identifyyou as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must presentthe full title with all words of the title equally prominent andvisible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.Copying with changes
limited to the covers, as long as they preservethe title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treatedas verbatim copying in other respects.If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fitlegibly,
you should put the first ones listed (as many as fitreasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacentpages.If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numberingmore than 100, you must either
include a machine-readable Transparentcopy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copya computer-network location from which the general network-usingpublic has access to download using public-standard
network protocolsa complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensurethat
this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the statedlocation until at least one year after the last time you distribute anOpaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of thatedition to the public.It is
requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of theDocument well before redistributing any large number of copies, to givethem a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
MODIFICATIONSYou may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document underthe conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you releasethe Modified Version under precisely this License, with the ModifiedVersion
filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distributionand modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copyof it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:A. Use in the Title Page (and
on the covers, if any) a title distinctfrom that of the Document, and from those of previous versions(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History sectionof the Document). You may use the same title as a previous
versionif the original publisher of that version gives permission.B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the ModifiedVersion, together with at
least five of the principal authors of theDocument (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),unless they release you from this requirement.C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of theModified
Version, as the publisher.D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modificationsadjacent to the other copyright notices.F. Include, immediately after the copyright
notices, a license noticegiving the public permission to use the Modified Version under theterms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
Sectionsand required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and addto it an item stating at least
the title, year, new authors, andpublisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. Ifthere is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create onestating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the
Document asgiven on its Title Page, then add an item describing the ModifiedVersion as stated in the previous sentence.J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document forpublic access to a Transparent copy of the
Document, and likewisethe network locations given in the Document for previous versionsit was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.You may omit a network location for a work that was published atleast
four years before the Document itself, or if the originalpublisher of the version it refers to gives permission.K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",Preserve the Title of the
section, and preserve in the section allthe substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgementsand/or dedications given therein.L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,unaltered in their text and in
their titles. Section numbersor the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a sectionmay not be included in the Modified Version.N. Do not retitle
any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections orappendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no materialcopied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or allof these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to thelist of Invariant Sections in the
Modified Version's license notice.These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it containsnothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by
variousparties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text hasbeen approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of astandard.You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and
apassage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the listof Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage ofFront-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (orthrough arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document alreadyincludes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you orby arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,you may not add another; but you may replace the old one,
on explicitpermission from the previous publisher that added the old one.The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this Licensegive permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert orimply endorsement
of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTSYou may combine the Document with other documents released under thisLicense, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modifiedversions, provided that you include in
the combination all of theInvariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, andlist them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in itslicense notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty
Disclaimers.The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, andmultiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a singlecopy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name butdifferent
contents, make the title of each such section unique byadding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the originalauthor or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.Make the same adjustment to the
section titles in the list ofInvariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"in the various original documents, forming one section
Entitled"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sectionsEntitled "Endorsements".
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTSYou may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documentsreleased under this License, and replace the individual copies of thisLicense in the various documents with a single copy that is
included inthe collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License forverbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distributeit
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of thisLicense into the extracted document, and follow this License in allother respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH
INDEPENDENT WORKSA compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separateand independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage ordistribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
copyrightresulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rightsof the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does notapply to the
other works in the aggregate which are not themselvesderivative works of the Document.If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to thesecopies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half ofthe
entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed oncovers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or theelectronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.Otherwise they must appear on
printed covers that bracket the wholeaggregate.
8. TRANSLATIONTranslation is considered a kind of modification, so you maydistribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.Replacing Invariant Sections
with translations requires specialpermission from their copyright holders, but you may includetranslations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to theoriginal versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include
atranslation of this License, and all the license notices in theDocument, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also includethe original English version of this License and the original versionsof those notices and
disclaimers. In case of a disagreement betweenthe translation and the original version of this License or a noticeor disclaimer, the original version will prevail.If a section in the Document is Entitled
"Acknowledgements","Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserveits Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actualtitle.
9. TERMINATIONYou may not copy,
modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document exceptas expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt tocopy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and willautomatically terminate your rights
under this License. However,parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under thisLicense will not have their licenses terminated so long as suchparties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS
LICENSEThe Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versionsof the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such newversions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but maydiffer in detail to address
new problems or concerns. Seehttp://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of thisLicense "or any later
version" applies to it, you have the option offollowing the terms and conditions either of that specified version orof any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by theFree Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a versionnumber of this License, you may choose any version ever published (notas a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documentsTo use this License
in a document you have written, include a copy ofthe License in the document and put the following copyright andlicense notices just after the title page:Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.Permission is granted to copy, distribute
and/or modify this documentunder the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts.A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNUFree Documentation License".If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,replace the "with...Texts." line with
this:with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with theFront-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some othercombination of the three,
merge those two alternatives to suit thesituation.If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, werecommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice offree software license, such as the GNU General
Public License,to permit their use in free software.